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Glossary

A B C E F H I K L M O P S T U

A

Access Authorization — a permission given to users, programs or workstations.


Access Mediation Rules — part of security policy, which covers access of users and processes to passive objects.


Authorized Access to Information — access to information, which doesn't violate access mediation rules (a.k.a. access control rules).


B

Badware — the same as malware; bad software.


C

Computer — a device or a system (a few united devices), designed for input, processing and output of information.


Computer Contaminant — a term denoting harmful software; it is used in legislation of some states of the USA, for example, in California and West Virginia.


Computer Network — a system of computers, facilities and communication channels, which enables to use information and calculation resources of every computer in the network regardless of its location.


Computer Security includes procedures, both technological and managerial, applied to a computer system with the purpose of ensuring availability, integrity and confidentiality of information managed by the computer system. Computer Security is one of the main fields where keyloggers are applied.


Crimeware — type of malware, specially created for automation of financial crimes. It is a not synonym of malware (meaning of the term malware is wider), but all the programs related to crimeware are malicious.

E

Email — technology and services based on this technology, which comprise sending and receipt of electronic reports (called "messages" or "electronic mail") via a distributed computer network (including the global network, a.k.a. the Internet). Within the framework of our testing, Email is one of the methods of log-files remote delivery, carried out by keyloggers (if a corresponding functionality is available).


Employee Monitoring comprises measures that let an employer know what his employee does on the workplace. Employee monitoring is one of the primary purposes of keyloggers use.


F

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) — a standard network protocol used for transmission of files over TCP-based networks (for example, the Internet). FTP is often used for downloading of web pages and other documents from a developer's computer to open hosting servers. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol in the form of a username and password, but they also can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.


H

Harm — infliction of damage or injury on somebody or something.


Hardware Keylogger — a small device that can be installed between a keyboard and computer or built-in into a keyboard. Records all keystrokes made on a keyboard.


Hotkey Combination — a type of an interface for interaction with a computer system (e.g. computer, calculator), which means that some commands (operations) executed by this system is appointed (programmed) to a pressure of a key (or a combinations of keys) on the keyboard. In our testing, a hotkey combination is one of the methods used for calling a keylogger's control panel.


I

Information Security Policy — a set of laws, rules, limitations, recommendations, instructions, etc., regulating the order of information processing.


K

Keylogger (key(stroke) logger) — a software product (module) or a hardware device recording every keystroke made on the computer's keyboard. Read more about keyloggers here.


L

LAN (Local Area Network) — a computer network, which usually covers a relatively small territory or a group of buildings (house, office, company, institute). Also there are local networks, nodes of which are distributed geographically by distances of more than 12 500 kilometers (space stations and orbital centers). Despite such distances, these networks, however, are also considered local ones. Within the framework of our testing, LAN is one of the methods of log-files remote delivery, carried out by keyloggers (if a corresponding functionality is available).


Log File — a file with records about events in chronological order. Within the framework of our testing, a log file is a basic place where a keylogger records registered users' actions of the personal computer.


Logging — a process of recording information about events happening to some object (or within the framework of some process) into some journal (for example, a file). Within the framework of our testing, logging is one of the basic processes of keyloggers' activity.


M

Malicious — intended for inflicting harm, causing harm.


Malware — malicious software; any software, objectively capable of deleting, blocking, modifying or copying information without prior notice of the owner and user of information with administrative privilege.


Monitoring Software — software (or a module) designed for surveillance over computer systems; it allows to record activity of users and processes, monitor use of passive objects, as well as clearly identify the users and processes involved in certain events in order to prevent violation of security policies and/or ensure responsibility for certain actions. Unlike spy software, monitoring software is installed on a computer either by the owner of the computer or by a system administrator. In the latter case, the user is necessarily notified about installation of a monitoring software product on his computer.


O

Operating System — a complex of managing and processing software, which, on the one hand, serves as an interface between devices of the computer system and application programs, and on the other hand, is intended for handling devices, control over calculation processes, effective sharing of computing resources between computing processes and ensuring reliable calculations. This definition is applicable to most of currently used general-purpose operating systems.


P

Parental Control — a complex of rules and measures intended to prevent negative influence of the internet and computer on a person under care (usually a child).


Password — a secret word or set of characters, which is used to confirm identity or privilege. Passwords are often used to protect information from unauthorized access. In most computer systems a "username – password" combination is used for user identification. In our testing, a password is one of the methods of "self-defense", used by keyloggers to prevent unauthorized persons from interference into their work.


S

Screenshot — an image showing what exactly a user sees (as a rule, without the mouse cursor) on the monitor screen or on other visual display unit. Within the framework of our testing, taking screenshots is one of the functions of keyloggers (if a corresponding functionality is available).


Spy Software — software, which collects information about computer configuration, user activity, and any other confidential information without notifying users about it.


Spyware (Spy (Soft)ware) — a software product of a certain kind, installed and used without due notification of the user, without his consent and control from the user's side, i.e. illegally installed.


SSH protocol can be used for secure transmission, hiding (encrypting) the login and password, and encrypting content as well. Within the framework of our testing, FTP is one of the methods of log-files remote delivery, carried out by keyloggers (if a corresponding functionality is available).


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) — cryptographic protocol that provides communication security. It uses asymmetric cryptography for authentication of key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality and message authentication codes for message integrity. This protocol is widely used in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP). Within the framework of our testing, SSL is one of the methods, used by keyloggers to secure log files while transmission via email (if a corresponding functionality is available).


Startup Entry — a record about presence of a process/application in the list of processes/applications, automatically launched when Windows operating system starts.


T

Task Manager — a utility in Windows operating systems intended for displaying the list of running processes and resources they consume (in particular, their status, processor time and RAM consumed). Also this utility allows to carry out certain actions with the processes.


TLS (Transport Layer Security) — Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure data transmission over the Internet. TLS and SSL use asymmetric cryptography for authentication of key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality and message authentication codes for message integrity. Within the framework of our testing, TLS is one of the methods, used by keyloggers to secure log files while transmission via email (if a corresponding functionality is available).


U

Unauthorized Access to Information — access to information, which violates access mediation rules.


User Violator — a user gaining unauthorized access to information.

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IMPORTANT! Installing computer monitoring tools on computers you do not own or do not have permission to monitor may violate local, state or federal law.